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The Paerregaard article talks about how the transnational citizens use the Virgin of Carmen as a mediation and media to express their ties to the original community in Cabanaconde. When people moved from one place to another, it is difficult for them to not feeling any cultural shock as well as the conscious difference. Therefore, they tend to use objects that could represent their culture in order to keep their original identity when being in a foreign land. Because I think when people moved to a new place, they may encounter the difficulty of distinguishing themselves. Their identities as Cabanacondes would be blurred and may be override and they will find themselves lost to both of them. Thus, the practice of the traditional habits or original customs are the ways they could potentially use to stay in their true identities and not being fully washed. Virgin of Carmen is a great example of showing this. People practicing this fiesta, traveling back to their homeland and spending thousands of hard earned money only means to preserve their ties to their culture and identity and connect to the tradition. However, when people are practicing the Virgin of Carmen, difference and divisions are shown. The preparations for the fiesta will emphasize some people’s success and exclusiveness over others who don’t have the chance and it’s often a signal to distinguish those who have achieved the social status as both transnational migrants and global cosmopolitans and those who do not.

But the old tradition changes with times and there are several big changes. The used to be villager’s agro-religious calendar and big event that emphasize protecting the good will of the local religious force has changed to serve as a tool for the migration to show their loyalty and their success in the cities. Also, it has switched from a rural religious life into a metropolitical lifestyle. It creates new relation of inequality and social tensions that thorough the change of the meaning of participation into the religious activity.

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